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Tanya for Sunday, 20 Sivan, 5782 - June 19, 2022

As Divided for a Leap Year

Tanya for 20 Sivan

19 Sivan, 5782 - June 18, 202221 Sivan, 5782 - June 20, 2022

Chapter Seven

[The Alter Rebbe explained in the previous chapters that the Scriptural statement that "in the heavens above and upon the earth below there is none other," is not intended to negate the existence of another god. Rather, it tells us that Divine Unity is such that there is no true existence other than G-d, for all created beings are completely nullified in relation to Him and are united with Him.

This is not perceived by them nor manifest in them, only because of the tzimtzum which conceals the Divine life-force that continuously brings about their existence ex nihilo.

Being unable to perceive this life-force, they consider themselves to be independently existing entities.

This concealment, of course, applies only to created beings but not to their Creator.

From the Divine perspective there is no concealment whatever, inasmuch as Havayah and Elokim are truly one: the concealment effected by Elokim thus does not act as a concealment for Havayah.

The Alter Rebbe will now explain how the above enables us to understand the teaching of the Zohar that Shema Yisrael is "higher- level Unity" and Baruch shem is "lower-level Unity."

Were Divine Unity merely to signify the existence of one G-d, it would be impossible to speak of higher and lower levels of Unity.

According to the above explanation, however, that Divine Unity means the nullity of created beings and their unity with G-d, it is indeed possible to speak of two diverse levels of Unity.

In this sense, "higher-level Unity" refers to the Divine faculty of creative speech (otherwise known as Malchut), considered at the stage in which it is still found within its source.

By way of analogy, the seminal letters of a person's speech are first encapsulated within his thought and emotions, which will ultimately be responsible for his subsequent speech. (The Rebbe Shlita notes that "this was explained in Part I, chapters 20-21.")

The same is true Above: When Supernal creative speech is at the stage in which it is still included within the Supernal attributes - which, being infinite, are too lofty to serve as a source of creation, for it is inherently limited to space and time - creation as it exists in its source is united with G-d at the higher level of Unity. Its manner of nullification is then similar to the nullification of the sun's rays as they are found within the sun-globe.

When, however, the Divine creative power of speech (or Malchut), after undergoing a process of tzimtzumim, descends to a level at which it is able to serve as a source for creation, then the term "lower-level Unity" applies.

Created beings at this level cannot be said to be completely and utterly nullified. For inasmuch as this level becomes the actual source of created beings, they must perforce have some measure of identity in relation to it.

Although this level, too, is pervaded by the Ein Sof-light which unites with the Divine faculty of creative speech, this unification is nevertheless one of "lower-level Unity," wherein created beings are seen to have some measure of existence - albeit a nullified form of existence, but existence nonetheless].

With the above in mind, we may now understand the statement in the holy Zohar, that the verse Shema Yisrael is yichuda ila'ah ("higher- level Unity"), and that the verse Baruch shem kvod malchuto leolam vaed is yichuda tata'ah ("lower- level Unity").

[The connection between the last-mentioned verse and Divine Unity is now explained]:

For [1] vaed is [equivalent to] echad through the substitution of letters. [2]

[The alef of echad interchanges with the vav of vaed, since both letters belong to the same group of letters, viz., alef, hei, vav, yud (which, the Rebbe Shlita notes, are known as otiyot hahemshech, the "connective letters").

The chet of echad interchanges with the ayin of vaed, since they share the same source (motza) in the organs of speech, and thus both belong to the category of "guttural letters," viz., alef, hei, chet, ayin.

Finally, the large daled of echad transposes into the small daled of vaed].

The cause and reason for this tzimtzum and concealment with which the Holy One, blessed be He, obscured and hid the life- force of the world, making it appear as an independently existing entity, [is as follows:

I.e., the Alter Rebbe is asking why it is indeed necessary for the world to appear as an independently existing entity. What would be lacking if the world would be perceived in its true state - as an entity wholly nullified in relation to its source?

The reason for this is as follows]:

It is known to all that the purpose of the creation of the world is the revelation of [G-d's] sovereignty, for [3] "there is no king without a nation."

The word Am ("nation") is related etymologically to the word omamot ("dimmed, extinguished"), [as in the expression gechalim omamot (Rashi on Shoftim 5:14), describing coals in which the fire is not to be seen.

In terms of the relationship of a king and his subjects, the word Am thus signifies those whose relationship with the king is not readily apparent], for they - [the subjects who comprise a nation] - are separate entities, distinct and distant from the level of the king; [only upon them does the king reign, as a result of their nullifying themselves to him].

For even if he had very many children, the term "kingship" would not apply to them, [inasmuch as the king's children are part of the king himself], nor [is it possible for a king to reign] even over nobles alone.

[Although they - unlike a king's children - are not part of him, nevertheless, since their position puts them in constant and close contact with him, thereby lending them some of the aspects of kingship, the king cannot reign over nobles alone].

Only [4] "in a numerous nation is the glory of the king."

[Only upon strangers can sovereignty apply.

The same is true Above: The ultimate intent of the revelation of Divine Kingship finds expression in His reigning over lowly created beings, who perceive themselves as existing independently of Him - so that they, too, should humble and nullify themselves before Him].

The Name that indicates the attribute of G-d's Malchut ("Kingship") is the Name of Adnut ("Lordship"), for [His Kingship lies in the fact that] He is L-rd of the whole universe.

Thus, it is this attribute [viz., Malchut] and this Name [viz., the Name of Adnut, signifying lordship] which bring the world into existence and sustain it so that it should be as it is now - a completely independent and separate entity, and not absolutely nullified.

For with the withdrawal of this attribute and this Name from the world, G-d forbid, the world would revert to its source in the "word of G-d" and the "breath of His mouth," where it would be completely nullified, and the name "world" could not be applied to it at all.

[Inherent in the name "world" is being and limitation. However, in the state in which the world finds itself within its source it would have no "being" and would not be limited.



  1. (Back to text) "A letter of mine dealing with this substitution appears in Kovetz Lubavitch." ( - Note of the Rebbe Shlita). This letter has since been reprinted in Teshuvot U'Biurim (Kehot, N.Y., 1974; Heb.), Section 13, p. 62.

  2. (Back to text) "As stated in Zohar II, 135a." ( -Note of the Rebbe Shlita).

  3. (Back to text) Emek HaMelech, Shaar HaMitzvot, beginning of ch. 1; Rabbeinu Bachaye, Parshat Vayeishev, 38:2. Cf. Pirkei deRabbi Eliezer, chapter 3.

  4. (Back to text) Mishlei 14:28.

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